Assembling a Bibliography

FORMAT OF BIBLIOGRAPHY

At the end of your paper, you include a bibliography, a list of the sources you used to write your paper. Your entire paper, including the bibliography, must be formatted according to an approved style. Many formatting styles exist, but you will follow the one your teacher assigns. Some formatting styles include Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA) and Chicago.  In the past, the subject of the paper determined the style a student used; but these traditional rules seem to be shifting. Your English teacher may direct you to use APA style instead of the usual MLA for humanities. As stated previously, you always follow the directives of your teacher in writing your research paper.

When you format the citations for your bibliography, you will need to alphabetize them, punctuate them correctly, and, if using MLA,  use overhanging indent (the first line starts at the margin, the rest of the citation is indented).

Bibliographies contain all the sources you used for your paper–books, DVDs, magazine articles, websites. If you mention an author or source in your paper, it must appear in your bibliography. If no author is given for an article or website, etc., alphabetize by the article or website’s title. If this title begins with a, an, the, go to the next word to alphabetize.

Every idea that is not from you needs to be cited. If you need to cite a different kind of source, you can look at Purdue University’s Online Writing Laboratory (OWL) or, in printed form, a manual of style. In addition, online sites exist for citing sources electronically, for example, Easybib or Noodletools. However, when you use your source, you need to keep a careful record of the publication information so you can plug in that information on these electronic sites.

 

ABRIDGED MLA CITATION GUIDELINES

  • If you have more than one author, list the second author with his/her first name, then last name.
  • If your book is illustrated, copy the illustration information from the title page exactly as it appears.
    • For example, Pictures by Paul Zelinsky; Photographs by Ansel Adams, etc. If your book has more than one publishing city, pick the one closest to where you live; pick the most recent publication date.

Book

With one author:

Author’s last name, author’s first name. Title. City: Publisher, Publishing year. Print.

 

Encyclopedia or Dictionary (unsigned)

“Term looked up.” Encyclopedia. # ed. Year.

 

Periodical

Author’s last name, author’s first name. “Title of Article.” Periodical. Date: pp.

 

Online database

Author/editor name(s). “Name of article.” Magazine or Journal. Date: pp (if given). Source. Web. Date of Access.

 

Website

Author (if known). “Title of Article.” Website Name. Date of article. Name of Organization sponsoring web site. Web. Date of access.

 

Interview

Person interviewed, relationship. Interview by author, Date, City. Interview.

 

Video or DVD

Author’s last name, author’s first name (if given). Title of video. Produced and Directed by _______. Number of mins. Production company. Year of Format. Videocassette OR DVD.

 

 

Book: Look on the front and back of the title page.

Author’s last name, first name:_____________________________________________

Title:_______________________________________________________ (italics)

Illustrator (if given):_____________________________________________________

Publishing city:______________________

Publisher:___________________________

Year:_____________ . Print.

Encyclopedia: Look on the front and back of the title page.

Author’s last name, first name:____________________________________________

Term you looked up:_____________________________________(quotations marks)

Title:___________________________________________________(italics)

Edition (year):________________. Print.

Periodical (Magazine/Journal): Examine front/back covers, contents

Author’s last name, first name:__________________________________________

Title of article:____________________________________________(quotation marks)

Periodical:________________________________________________(italics)

Vol._____ Issue:_______(for journals)

Date:________________________(d/m//y): Page nos. :____________. Print.

Online Database: Don’t leave the computer without this information.

Author’s last name, first name:__________________________________________

Title of article:____________________________________________(quotation marks)

Periodical:________________________________________________(italics)

Vol._____ Issue:_______(for journals)

Date:________________________(d/m//y): Page nos. (if given) :____________.

Database:________________________(italics) Web.

Date of access: ____________(d/m/y)

Website: Look at top/bottom of screen end page, home page.

Author’s last name, first name (if given):_______________________________________

Title of article:________________________________________ (in quotation marks)

Name of website:______________________________________ (italics)

Source of website:______________________________________(may be same as name)

Website last updated:___________________(d/m/y)

Web.

Date of access: ____________________________________(d/m/y)

Interview:

Person interviewed (last name/first name):____________________________________

Kind of interview (personal, telephone, email, etc.): _____________________________

Date of interview: ________________________________(d/m/y). Interview.

Video/DVD: Look on the box and on opening/ending credits of media.

Name of movie:______________________________

Director:________________

Performers:_________________________________________________________

Production company:__________________________

Year:___________. DVD.